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Interaction between calcium and potassium modulates elongation rate in cotton fiber cells

Update Time: 2017-10-15 10:21:08Click: times
Kai Guo Lili Tu Yonghui He Jinwu Deng Maojun Wang Hui Huang Zhonghua Li Xianlong Zhang.2017.Journal of Experimental Botany


Calcium (Ca2+) is necessary for fiber cell development in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), both as a cell wall structural component and for environmental signaling responses. It is also known that potassium (K+) plays a critical role in cotton fiber cell elongation. However, it is unclear whether Ca2+ integrates its activities with K+ to regulate fiber elongation. Here, we report the novel discovery that Ca2+ deficiency, when integrated with K+ signaling, promotes fiber elongation. Using inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), we determined dynamic profiles of the ionome in ovules and fibers at different developmental stages, and found that a high accumulation of macro-elements, but not Ca2+, was associated with longer fibers. Using an in vitro ovule culture system, we found that under Ca2+-deficient conditions, sufficient K+ (52 mM) rapidly induced ovule and fiber browning, while reduced K+ (2 or 27 mM) not only suppressed tissue browning but also altered fiber elongation. Reduced K+ also enhanced reactive oxygen species scavenging ability and maintained abscisic acid and jasmonic acid levels, which in turn compensated for Ca2+ deficiency. Ca2+ deficiency combined with reduced K+ (0 mM Ca2+ and 27 mM K+) produced longer fibers in cultured ovules, due to cell wall loosening by phytosulfokine (PSK), expansin (EXP), and xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH), and an increase of the K+ content of fiber cells. Using transgenic cotton, we showed that the CBL-INTERACTING PROTEIN KINASE 6 (GhCIPK6) gene mediates the uptake of K+ under Ca2+-deficient conditions. This study establishes a new link between Ca2+, K+, and fiber elongation.